DOI: 10.3390/life13081755 ISSN:

A Dietary and Lifestyle Intervention Improves Treatment Adherence and Clinical Outcomes in Overweight and Obese Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

Izolde Bouloukaki, Eleni Daskalaki, Eleni Mavroudi, Violeta Moniaki, Sophia E. Schiza, Ioanna Tsiligianni
  • Paleontology
  • Space and Planetary Science
  • General Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

The study’s objective was to assess the impact of Mediterranean diet/lifestyle interventions for weight loss on positive airway pressure (PAP) adherence, body mass index (ΒΜΙ), sleepiness, and blood pressure measurements (BP) in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We designed a randomized, controlled trial, including overweight and obese patients with moderate to severe OSA, randomized to standard care (SCG, n = 37) or a Mediterranean diet group (MDG, n = 37). The SCG received healthy lifestyle advice, while the MDG underwent a 6-month behavioral intervention aiming to enhance weight loss and adherence to a Mediterranean diet. PAP adherence, BMI, Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), and BP measurements were evaluated pre- and post-intervention. Post-intervention PAP use was higher in the MDG compared to the SCG (6.1 vs. 5.4, p = 0.02). Diet/lifestyle intervention was one of the most significant predictive factors for PAP adherence (OR = 5.458, 95% CI = 1.144–26.036, p = 0.03). The SCG demonstrated a rise in BMI, while the MDG displayed a decline (0.41 vs. −0.75, p = 0.02). The MDG also demonstrated a substantial reduction in adjusted SBP (−5.5 vs. 2.8, p = 0.014) and DBP (−4.0 vs. 2.5, p = 0.01). Ultimately, incorporating a dietary/lifestyle intervention with standard care yields superior PAP adherence, BMI, and BP measurements in contrast to standard care alone, emphasizing the advantages of dedicating more time and support within the MDG.

More from our Archive