DOI: 10.1145/3616019 ISSN:

A Deep Learning-based PPG Quality Assessment Approach for Heart Rate and Heart Rate Variability

Emad Kasaeyan Naeini, Fatemeh Sarhaddi, Iman Azimi, Pasi Liljeberg, Nikil Dutt, Amir M. Rahmani
  • Health Information Management
  • Health Informatics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Information Systems
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Software

Photoplethysmography (PPG) is a non-invasive optical method to acquire various vital signs, including heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV). The PPG method is highly susceptible to motion artifacts and environmental noise. Unfortunately, such artifacts are inevitable in ubiquitous health monitoring, as the users are involved in various activities in their daily routines. Such low-quality PPG signals negatively impact the accuracy of the extracted health parameters, leading to inaccurate decision-making. PPG-based health monitoring necessitates a quality assessment approach to determine the signal quality according to the accuracy of the health parameters. Different studies have thus far introduced PPG signal quality assessment methods, exploiting various indicators and machine learning algorithms. These methods differentiate reliable and unreliable signals, considering morphological features of the PPG signal and focusing on the cardiac cycles. Therefore, they can be utilized for HR detection applications. However, they do not apply to HRV, as only having an acceptable shape is insufficient, and other signal factors may also affect the accuracy. In this paper, we propose a deep learning-based PPG quality assessment method for HR and various HRV parameters. We employ one customized one-dimensional (1D) and three two-dimensional (2D) Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN) to train models for each parameter. Reliability of each of these parameters will be evaluated against the corresponding electrocardiogram signal, using 210 hours of data collected from a home-based health monitoring application. Our results show that the proposed 1D CNN method outperforms the other 2D CNN approaches. Our 1D CNN model obtains the accuracy of 95.63%, 96.71%, 91.42%, 94.01%, and 94.81% for the HR, average of normal to normal interbeat (NN) intervals (AVNN), root mean square of successive NN interval differences (RMSSD), standard deviation of NN intervals (SDNN), and ratio of absolute power in low frequency to absolute power in high frequency (LF/HF) ratios, respectively. Moreover, we compare the performance of our proposed method with state-of-the-art algorithms. We compare our best models for HR-HRV health parameters with six different state-of-the-art PPG signal quality assessment methods. Our results indicate that the proposed method performs better than the other methods. We also provide the open-source model implemented in Python for the community to be integrated into their solutions.

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