A Comprehensive Review on Metallic Trace Elements Toxicity in Fishes and Potential Remedial MeasuresSaima Naz, Ahmad Manan Mustafa Chatha, Guillermo Téllez-Isaías, Shakeeb Ullah, Qudrat Ullah, Muhammad Zahoor Khan, Muhammad Kamal Shah, Ghulam Abbas, Azka Kiran, Rubina Mushtaq, Baseer Ahmad, Zulhisyam Abdul Kari
- Water Science and Technology
- Aquatic Science
- Geography, Planning and Development
Metallic trace elements toxicity has been associated with a wide range of morphological abnormalities in fish, both in natural aquatic ecosystems and controlled environments. The bioaccumulation of metallic trace elements can have devastating effects on several aspects of fish health, encompassing physiological, reproductive, behavioural, and developmental functions. Considering the significant risks posed by metallic trace elements-induced toxicity to fish populations, this review aims to investigate the deleterious effects of prevalent metallic trace elements toxicants, such as mercury (Hg), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), lead (Pb), arsenic (As), and copper (Cu), on the neurological, reproductive, embryonic, and tissue systems of fish. Employing diverse search engines and relevant keywords, an extensive review of in vitro and in vivo studies pertaining to metallic trace elements toxicity and its adverse consequences on fish and their organs was conducted. The findings indicate that Cd was the most prevalent metallic trace elements in aquatic environments, exerting the most severe impacts on various fish organs and systems, followed by Cu and Pb. Moreover, it was observed that different metals exhibited varying degrees and types of effects on fish. Given the profound adverse effects of metallic trace elements contamination in water, immediate measures need to be taken to mitigate water pollution stemming from the discharge of waste containing metallic trace elements from agricultural, industrial, and domestic water usage. This study also compares the most common methods for treating metallic trace elements contamination in water.