DOI: 10.3390/buildings14020429 ISSN: 2075-5309

A BIM-FDS Based Evacuation Assessment of Complex Rail Transit Stations under Post-Earthquake Fires for Sustainable Buildings

Hui Xu, Yuxi Wei, Yongtao Tan, Qilin Zhou
  • Building and Construction
  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Architecture

Post-earthquake fire is considered as a catastrophic secondary disaster to personal and property safety, especially in complex rail transit station. This is primarily attributed to intricate infrastructure, densely populated floors, and the unrestricted layout of these areas. The aim of this study is to evaluate the evacuation capacity of complex railway stations under post-earthquake fires, and provide sustainable recommendations for building design. In this article, an evacuation assessment of a complex rail transit station under the post-earthquake fire for sustainable buildings was conducted from the internal environment and external rescue based on Building Information Modeling (BIM) and Fire Dynamic Simulation (FDS). The internal environment evacuation assessment simulation experiments were conducted in six hypothetical high-risk scenarios. In addition, the external rescue assessment was based on investigation of the route and the required rescue time during different periods of holidays and workdays. The results show that (1) The influence caused by different sizes of fire area in the power distribution room is smaller than those in the train at the platform floor. (2) In fire scenarios with the same fire area but different fire locations, the temperature is more affected than the CO concentration in the power distribution room. (3) It shows slight differences between single-floor fire and double-floor fire on evacuation of small area fire in power distribution room. Meanwhile, optimized design recommendations are proposed to reduce the risk of emergency evacuation in both internal and external environments of rail transit stations for sustainable future buildings, which include strategically locating the power distribution room away from public areas, installing fire-resistant doors around the room, increasing the quantity of smoke detectors and alarms with regular maintenance, minimizing the size of the power distribution room, developing specific emergency plans for train fires, and incorporating small fire stations in urban planning near complex public buildings to mitigate post-earthquake road obstruction challenges.

More from our Archive