DOI: 10.2337/db23-263-lb ISSN: 0012-1797

263-LB: Food Intake Impacts on Insulin Secretion, Resistance, and Glucose Variability in Free-Living Individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Internal Medicine

Changes in eating habits and physical activity are the cornerstone of treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). Dietary composition has important effects on the postprandial glucose and insulin response, but little is known about its impact in a real-life context. We analyzed the self-reported daily food composition of 13 individuals with obesity and T2D not on insulin (7F/6M, age 48±9, BMI 33±2, A1C 7±1) with ASA24 (NIH), while wearing continuous glucose monitor (Dexcom G4) for 3±1 days. They also underwent an oral glucose tolerance test to explore correlations with standard indices of insulin secretion and sensitivity. The mean consumption per meal of total calorie was: 534±110Kcal, carbohydrate: 51±19g, total grains: 1.78±0.66g (refined 1.61±0.59g, whole 0.17±0.18g), total fat: 25±6g (10±3.17g monounsaturated fat), and protein: 24±7g. We observed a positive correlation between average intake of total and monounsaturated fat with the insulin secretion index (ρ= 0.630, p=0.02,) and Disposition Index (DI) (p=0.001, ρ=0.821). An inverse relationship between the consumption of total and refined grains was noted with the insulin sensitivity indexes (p=0.01, ρ= -0.663); as well as with whole grains and DI (p=0.03, ρ= -0.601). We documented glycemic variability (GV) related to meal nutrient intake through macro program: CGM peak and nadir analysis, Microsoft Excel. Total and monounsaturated fats correlated with lower GV (p=0.02), while total and refined grains were associated with greater GV (p<0.03). Glucose nadir after a meal and glucose at the time of the meal inversely correlated with insulin secretion indexes and with DI (p<0.05). These data suggest, in a real-life context, the impact of food composition on modulation of GV, with fats being associated with greater insulin secretion and refined grains with decreased insulin sensitivity, reinforcing the importance of the effect of diet on management of diabetes.


A. Comarella: None. R. Belfort-DeAguiar: Research Support; Fractyl Health, Inc., Silver Palate Kitchens.


National Institutes of Health (DK098286-02)

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