Shuntao Liang, Qin Zhang, Fang Wang, Shiwei Wang, Guoli Li, Dong Jiang, Hui Zeng

2′,3′ cyclic nucleotide 3′ phosphodiesterase 1 functional isoform antagonizes HIV-1 particle assembly

  • Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis
  • Plant Science
  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology (miscellaneous)
  • Ecology

IFN-stimulated gene 2′,3′ cyclic nucleotide 3′ phosphodiesterase (CNP) comprises two isoforms: the short CNP1 and the long CNP2, featuring an additional N-terminal segment of 20 amino acids (N20aa) proposed as a mitochondrial targeting sequence. Notably, CNP1 can be produced by cleaving the N20aa segment from CNP2. Although previous investigations have recognized the HIV-1 particle assembly impairment capability of CNP2, the antiviral activity of CNP1 remains ambiguous. Our study clarifies that CNP1, as opposed to CNP2, serves as the primary isoform exerting anti-HIV-1 activity. Both CNP1 and CNP2 can localize to the cell membrane, but the N20aa segment of CNP2 impedes CNP2–HIV-1 Gag interaction. Cleavage of the N20aa segment from CNP2 results in the formation of a functional, truncated form known as CNP1. Intriguingly, this posttranslational processing of CNP2 N20aa occurs within the cytoplasmic matrix rather than the mitochondria. Regulated by CTII motif prenylation, CNP1 proteins translocate to the cell membrane and engage with HIV-1 Gag. In conclusion, our findings underscore the pivotal role of posttranslational modification in governing the inhibitory potential of CNP in HIV-1 replication.

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