DOI: 10.2337/db23-138-or ISSN: 0012-1797

138-OR: Characterization and Prediction of Genetic Risk of T1D in Individuals without HLA-DR3 or HLA-DR4

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Internal Medicine

The Major Histocompatibility (MHC) class II haplotypes HLA-DR3 and HLA-DR4 confer substantial genetic risk for type 1 diabetes (T1D), where 90% of individuals with T1D carry at least one copy of DR3 and/or DR4. We sought to understand whether the remaining 10% of T1D individuals without DR3 or DR4 haplotypes (non-DR3/DR4) have differences in genetic risk and whether current risk scores are effective for these individuals. We tested for T1D association using 12,716 non-DR3/DR4 samples from five European ancestry cohorts using genotypes imputed into the Michigan HLA and TOPMed v2 reference panels and identified independent signals using stepwise conditional analyses. There were 21 signals with significant effects on T1D, including 13 at the MHC locus and 8 genome-wide, of which 5 were novel. Across all T1D signals, 14 lead variants exhibited significant heterogeneity in effects on T1D in the non-DR3/DR4 subset compared to the full T1D population, including HLA-B*39 and the PTPN22 locus. Nearly 50% of non-DR3/DR4 T1D would be misclassified by a current T1D genetic risk score (T1D GRS1), which is weighted heavily by DR3/DR4 tag variants. We developed a new GRS using the 21 independent signals and determined whether this GRS could better discriminate T1D in individuals with non-DR3/DR4 haplotypes. The non-DR3/DR4 T1D GRS effectively differentiated T1D case and control samples (AUC=0.87) including in samples not in the initial discovery set (AUC=0.86), and improved prediction compared to GRS1 (AUC=0.52 using all controls, AUC=0.79 using only non-DR3/DR4 controls). These findings reveal a subset of T1D cases with heterogeneity in genetic risk and which are not as well represented by current risk scores, and argue that risk scores developed within heterogeneous subsets may enable even more accurate prediction of T1D.


C.Mcgrail: None. K.J.Gaulton: Consultant; Genentech, Inc., Stock/Shareholder; Neurocrine Biosciences, Inc., Vertex Pharmaceuticals Incorporated.


National Institutes of Health (DK120429, DK122607)

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