DOI: 10.2337/db23-136-or ISSN: 0012-1797

136-OR: The MDA5627X Variant Is Associated with Type 1 Diabetes Protection via Attenuated Inflammatory Antiviral Responses

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Internal Medicine

Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease characterized by destruction of pancreatic β cells. Genetics and environmental factors play crucial roles in T1D development. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms in IFIH1, encoding the viral sensor MDA5 have been linked to T1D. MDA5 promotes anti-viral responses and may link genetics with environmental factors to promote or suppress T1D. A stop-gain mutation in IFIH1 (rs35744605) results in a non-functional MDA5 protein (MDA5627X). We hypothesized that MDA5627X protects against T1D by dampening inflammatory anti-viral responses resulting in reduced autoimmunity. We gene edited human induced pluripotent stem cells at rs35744605 using a CRISPR/Cas9 strategy to generate iPSC encoding the stop-gain variant (MDA5627X). Macrophages (Mφ) have been demonstrated to be indispensable for T1D-initiation and regulate anti-viral responses. We differentiated iPSCs into Mφ and studies responses to high molecular weight Poly I:C to mimic viral infection. The outcome measures were Type 1 Interferon (IFN1) production, antigen presentation, and immune activation markers. Treatment of MDA5 intact Mφ with Poly I:C resulted in 60-fold increase in IFN1 production and a 3-fold elevation in human leukocyte antigen Class I (HLA-I) expression. In contrast, treated MDA5627X Mφ failed to increase IFN1 or HLA-I at any Poly I:C dose. While Poly I:C did not increase HLA-I expression, untreated MDA5627X Mφ had elevated HLA-1 compared to MDA5 intact Mφ (P=0.0306). Also, we assessed the expression of CD80, CD86, CD40, and MHC-II, however there were no differences in the expression between Mφ with intact MDA5 or MDA5627X. In contrast, IFNg and LPS treatment elevated expression of CD80, CD86, CD40, and MHC-II in both Mφ populations. In conclusion, our data point to a protective effect of the MDA5627X variant in T1D through decreased inflammatory IFN1 levels and T cell activation by Mφ.


O.Iwaloye: None. L.H.Armitage: None. A.M.Meacham: None. C.E.Mathews: None.


National Institutes of Health (R01DK127497, P01AI042288, UH3DK122638)

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