10006-PEDT-1 PEDIATRIC LOWER GRADE GLIOMA SURGERY IN THE ERA OF GENOMIC MEDICINEAkira Gomi, Hirofumi Oguma, Kensuke Kawai
- Neurology (clinical)
In the new WHO Brain Tumor Classification of 2021, pediatric-type gliomas are classified separately from adult-type tumors. Additionally, with the advancement of cancer genomics, treatment options have expanded. Here we consider surgery for pediatric low-grade gliomas.
We retrospectively analyzed 41 cases of low-grade gliomas or glioneuronal tumors in patients under 18 years of age who underwent surgery at our institute from 2002 to March 2023. We discussed surgical strategies based on molecular classification.
Among the cases, there were 34 gliomas and 7 glioneuronal tumors. According to the new WHO classification, they corresponded to 1) Adult-type diffuse gliomas, 2) Pediatric-type diffuse low-grade gliomas, 3) Circumscribed astrocytic tumors, or 4) Glioneuronal and neuronal tumors. Cases without molecular diagnosis were also considered in light of the new WHO classification.
Among molecularly diagnosed astrocytomas involving the cerebral hemisphere, brain stem, spinal cord, there were no cases of 1), and 2) 3) were the main cases. It is important in surgical selection to note that these cases generally have a more favorable prognosis compared to the adult type and have usefulness in diagnosing MAPK pathway abnormalities leading to the selection of molecularly targeted drugs. 3) includes pilocytic astrocytoma, subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, and pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma. Among these, in the treatment of pilocytic astrocytomas located in the optic pathway and hypothalamus, biopsy becomes necessary for molecular diagnosis and the selection of appropriate therapeutic agents. Conversely, for unilateral optic nerve gliomas, options other than resection may be considered. 4) is primarily associated with epilepsy-related tumors. Surgical resection holds the promise of controlling epilepsy in these cases. However, various genetic abnormalities have been identified, which could prove useful in diagnosis and treatment.
Based on the new WHO classification, a reevaluation of treatment strategies for pediatric brain tumors is necessary.