DOI: 10.3390/nu16040502 ISSN: 2072-6643

The Protective Impact of Aronia melanocarpa L. Berries Extract against Prooxidative Cadmium Action in the Brain—A Study in an In Vivo Model of Current Environmental Human Exposure to this Harmful Element

Agnieszka Ruczaj, Małgorzata M. Brzóska, Joanna Rogalska
  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics

Cadmium (Cd) is a prooxidant that adversely affects human health, including the nervous system. As exposure of the general population to this heavy metal is inevitable, it is crucial to look for agents that can prevent the effects of its toxic action. An experimental model on female rats of current lifetime human exposure to cadmium (3–24-months’ treatment with 1 or 5 mg Cd/kg diet) was used to test whether low-level and moderate intoxication can exert a prooxidative impact in the brain and whether supplementation with a 0.1% extract from the berries of Aronia melanocarpa L. (Michx.) Elliott (AE; chokeberry extract) can protect against this action. Numerous parameters of the non-enzymatic and enzymatic antioxidative barrier, as well as total antioxidative and oxidative status (TAS and TOS, respectively), were determined and the index of oxidative stress (OSI) was calculated. Moreover, chosen prooxidants (myeloperoxidase, xanthine oxidase, and hydrogen peroxide) and biomarkers of oxidative modifications of lipids, proteins, and deoxyribonucleic acid were assayed. Cadmium dysregulated the balance between oxidants and antioxidants in the brain and led to oxidative stress and oxidative injury of the cellular macromolecules, whereas the co-administration of AE alleviated these effects. To summarize, long-term, even low-level, cadmium exposure can pose a risk of failure of the nervous system by the induction of oxidative stress in the brain, whereas supplementation with products based on aronia berries seems to be an effective protective strategy.

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