DOI: 10.3390/computation11080150 ISSN: 2079-3197

# The Problem of Effective Evacuation of the Population from Floodplains under Threat of Flooding: Algorithmic and Software Support with Shortage of Resources

Oksana Yu. Vatyukova, Anna Yu. Klikunova, Anna A. Vasilchenko, Alexander A. Voronin, Alexander V. Khoperskov, Mikhail A. Kharitonov
• Applied Mathematics
• Modeling and Simulation
• General Computer Science
• Theoretical Computer Science

Extreme flooding of the floodplains of large lowland rivers poses a danger to the population due to the vastness of the flooded areas. This requires the organization of safe evacuation in conditions of a shortage of temporary and transport resources due to significant differences in the moments of flooding of different spatial parts. We consider the case of a shortage of evacuation vehicles, in which the safe evacuation of the entire population to permanent evacuation points is impossible. Therefore, the evacuation is divided into two stages with the organization of temporary evacuation points on evacuation routes. Our goal is to develop a method for analyzing the minimum resource requirement for the safe evacuation of the population of floodplain territories based on a mathematical model of flood dynamics and minimizing the number of vehicles on a set of safe evacuation schedules. The core of the approach is a numerical hydrodynamic model in shallow water approximation. Modeling the hydrological regime of a real water body requires a multi-layer geoinformation model of the territory with layers of relief, channel structure, and social infrastructure. High-performance computing is performed on GPUs using CUDA. The optimization problem is a variant of the resource investment problem of scheduling theory with deadlines for completing work and is solved on the basis of a heuristic algorithm. We use the results of numerical simulation of floods for the Northern part of the Volga-Akhtuba floodplain to plot the dependence of the minimum number of vehicles that ensure the safe evacuation of the population. The minimum transport resources depend on the water discharge in the Volga river, the start of the evacuation, and the localization of temporary evacuation points. The developed algorithm constructs a set of safe evacuation schedules for the minimum allowable number of vehicles in various flood scenarios. The population evacuation schedules constructed for the Volga-Akhtuba floodplain can be used in practice for various vast river valleys.