DOI: 10.2478/sjcapp-2023-0011 ISSN:

Systematic Review of Environmental and Psychosocial Risk Factors associated with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, Oppositional Defiant Disorder, and Conduct Disorder in Children and Adolescents

Rasha Elbagir, Mohd Faisal, Susan O’Hanharan



In the majority of cases, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is accompanied by one or more comorbid disorders, with the oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) being one of the most frequently diagnosed comorbid disorders. There is a lack of systematic reviews addressing the evidence for an association between the independent environmental and psychosocial risk factors associated with ADHD, ODD, and Conduct Disorder (CD).


This study aims to determine the link between ADHD and ODD/CD, specifically in terms of the most up-to-date environmental and psychosocial risk factors in the development of these illnesses.


Eleven studies were included in this systematic review. Among these, ten studies involved environmental risk factors, and only one involved socioeconomic risk factors as exposure. Of the ten studies highlighting the environmental risk factors, six studies reported perinatal risk factors, three reported Atopic diseases as exposure measures, and one involved exposure to energy and coffee drinks. We have found that the most common risk factors associated with ADHD, ODD and CD in Europe and North America were Perinatal risk factors. In contrast, the risk factors of Atopic diseases were more common in Asia.


Most of the studies included in our systematic review fall within the scope of environmental risk factors were perinatal risk factors and atopic diseases are the most common risk factors. However, only one article highlighted the association of socioeconomic risk factors as an exposure. Our review results suggest the need for more research focused on psychosocial risk factors for ADHD and comorbid ODD/CD. Further research is required with the primary objective of investigating this association in greater depth and examining the possible mechanisms at varying levels is needed.

More from our Archive