Summer Rice–Winter Potato Rotation Suppresses Various Soil-Borne Plant Fungal PathogensYuanping Zhou, Wenjiao Luo, Maoxing Li, Qiong Wang, Yongxin Liu, Huachun Guo
- Agronomy and Crop Science
Growing potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) using the idle rice fields in Southern China and the Indo-Gangetic Plains of India in the winter season through the rice–potato rotation (RC) system could support future food security. However, the modulation capacity of the RC system on soilborne fungal pathogens is still unclear. In the current study, a pot experiment was designed and conducted to monitor the dynamics of soil fungal community composition between the potato monoculture (CC) system and the RC system, where the two systems were set with the same soil conditions: autoclaving with fertilization; autoclaving without fertilization; autoclave-free with fertilization; and autoclave-free without fertilization. Then, the uncultivated soil (CK) and root-zone soil samples of conditions under the two systems were collected, and then soil physiochemical properties and enzymatic activities were determined. Next, the high-variable region (V5–V7) of fungal 18S rRNA genes of the samples were amplified and sequenced through the PCR technique and the Illumina Miseq platform, respectively. Finally, the fungal species diversity and composition, as well as the relative abundance of fungal pathogens annotated against the Fungiuld database in soil samples, were also investigated. The results showed that the RC could significantly (p < 0.05) increase soil fungal species diversity and decrease the relative abundance of soil fungal pathogens, where the RC could suppress 23 soil fungal pathogens through cultivating the rice during the summer season and 93.75% of the remaining pathogens through winter-season cultivation. Seven-eighths of the conditions under RC have lower pathogenic MGIDI indices (6.38 to 7.82) than those of the CC (7.62 to 9.63). Notably, both rice cultivation and winter planting reduced the abundance of the pathogenic strain ASV24 under the Colletotrichum genus. The bipartite fungal network between the pathogens and the non-pathogens showed that the pathogenic members could be restricted through co-occurring with the non-pathogenic species and planting crops in the winter season. Finally, the redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that soil pH, electronic conductivity, available phosphorus content, and various enzyme activities (cellulase, urease, sucrase, acid phosphatase, catalase, polyphenol oxidase) could be the indicators of soil fungal pathogens. This experiment demonstrated that the rice–potato rotation system outperformed the potato monoculture on suppressing soilborne fungal pathogenic community.