Structure of DNA-Cationic Liposome Complexes: DNA Intercalation in Multilamellar Membranes in Distinct Interhelical Packing RegimesJoachim O. Rädler, Ilya Koltover, Tim Salditt, Cyrus R. Safinya
Cationic liposomes complexed with DNA (CL-DNA) are promising synthetically based nonviral carriers of DNA vectors for gene therapy. The solution structure of CL-DNA complexes was probed on length scales from subnanometer to micrometer by synchrotron x-ray diffraction and optical microscopy. The addition of either linear λ-phage or plasmid DNA to CLs resulted in an unexpected topological transition from liposomes to optically birefringent liquid-crystalline condensed globules. X-ray diffraction of the globules revealed a novel multilamellar structure with alternating lipid bilayer and DNA monolayers. The λ-DNA chains form a one-dimensional lattice with distinct interhelical packing regimes. Remarkably, in the isoelectric point regime, the λ-DNA interaxial spacing expands between 24.5 and 57.1 angstroms upon lipid dilution and is indicative of a long-range electrostatic-induced repulsion that is possibly enhanced by chain undulations.