DOI: 10.1161/strokeaha.123.042632 ISSN:

Spreading Depolarizations Suppress Hematoma Growth in Hyperacute Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Mice

Paul Fischer, Isra Tamim, Kazutaka Sugimoto, Andreia Morais, Takahiko Imai, Tsubasa Takizawa, Tao Qin, Frieder Schlunk, Matthias Endres, Mohammad A. Yaseen, David Y. Chung, Sava Sakadzic, Cenk Ayata
  • Advanced and Specialized Nursing
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Neurology (clinical)


Spreading depolarizations (SDs) occur in all types of brain injury and may be associated with detrimental effects in ischemic stroke and subarachnoid hemorrhage. While rapid hematoma growth during intracerebral hemorrhage triggers SDs, their role in intracerebral hemorrhage is unknown.


We used intrinsic optical signal and laser speckle imaging, combined with electrocorticography, to investigate the effects of SD on hematoma growth during the hyperacute phase (0–4 hours) after intracortical collagenase injection in mice. Hematoma expansion, SDs, and cerebral blood flow were simultaneously monitored under normotensive and hypertensive conditions.


Spontaneous SDs erupted from the vicinity of the hematoma during rapid hematoma growth. We found that hematoma growth slowed down by >60% immediately after an SD. This effect was even stronger in hypertensive animals with faster hematoma growth. To establish causation, we exogenously induced SDs (every 30 minutes) at a remote site by topical potassium chloride application and found reduced hematoma growth rate and final hemorrhage volume (18.2±5.8 versus 10.7±4.1 mm 3 ). Analysis of cerebral blood flow using laser speckle flowmetry revealed that suppression of hematoma growth by spontaneous or induced SDs coincided and correlated with the characteristic oligemia in the wake of SD, implicating the vasoconstrictive effect of SD as one potential mechanism of action.


Our findings reveal that SDs limit hematoma growth during the early hours of intracerebral hemorrhage and decrease final hematoma volume.

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