DOI: 10.3390/s23177453 ISSN:

Small-Molecule Analysis Based on DNA Strand Displacement Using a Bacteriorhodopsin Photoelectric Transducer: Taking ATP as an Example

Hsiu-Mei Chen, Wen-Chang Wang, Hong-Ren Chen
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Biochemistry
  • Instrumentation
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Analytical Chemistry

A uniformly oriented purple membrane (PM) monolayer containing photoactive bacteriorhodopsin has recently been applied as a sensitive photoelectric transducer to assay color proteins and microbes quantitatively. This study extends its application to detecting small molecules, using adenosine triphosphate (ATP) as an example. A reverse detection method is used, which employs AuNPs labeling and specific DNA strand displacement. A PM monolayer-coated electrode is first covalently conjugated with an ATP-specific nucleic acid aptamer and then hybridized with another gold nanoparticle-labeled nucleic acid strand with a sequence that is partially complementary to the ATP aptamer, in order to significantly minimize the photocurrent that is generated by the PM. The resulting ATP-sensing chip restores its photocurrent production in the presence of ATP, and the photocurrent recovers more effectively as the ATP concentration increases. Direct and single-step ATP detection is achieved in 15 min, with detection limits of 5 nM and a dynamic range of 5 nM–0.1 mM. The sensing chip exhibits high selectivity against other ATP analogs and is satisfactorily stable in storage. The ATP-sensing chip is used to assay bacterial populations and achieves a detection limit for Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli of 102 and 103 CFU/mL, respectively. The demonstration shows that a variety of small molecules can be simultaneously quantified using PM-based biosensors.

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