DOI: 10.3390/e25091244 ISSN:

Sleep Spindle-Related EEG Connectivity in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: An Exploratory Study

Caterina Zanus, Aleksandar Miladinović, Federica De Dea, Aldo Skabar, Matteo Stecca, Miloš Ajčević, Agostino Accardo, Marco Carrozzi
  • General Physics and Astronomy

Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurobehavioral disorder with known brain abnormalities but no biomarkers to support clinical diagnosis. Recently, EEG analysis methods such as functional connectivity have rekindled interest in using EEG for ADHD diagnosis. Most studies have focused on resting-state EEG, while connectivity during sleep and spindle activity has been underexplored. Here we present the results of a preliminary study exploring spindle-related connectivity as a possible biomarker for ADHD. We compared sensor-space connectivity parameters in eight children with ADHD and nine age/sex-matched healthy controls during sleep, before, during, and after spindle activity in various frequency bands. All connectivity parameters were significantly different between the two groups in the delta and gamma bands, and Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in the gamma band distinguished ADHD from healthy subjects. Cluster coefficient and path length values in the sigma band were also significantly different between epochs, indicating different spindle-related brain activity in ADHD.

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