Sleep and Stroke-Related Delirium: A Systematic ReviewValerio Brunetti, Eleonora Rollo, Irene Scala, Jessica Marotta, Antonio Callea, Claudio Imperatori, Giacomo Della Marca
Study objectives: Sleep and circadian rhythms disorders are frequent in the acute stroke. Sleep modifications are likely to contribute to the development of stroke-related delirium, a common neuropsychiatric complication of acute stroke. This systematic review aimed to clarify the association between sleep modifications and the occurrence of delirium in patients with acute stroke. Methods: The current systematic review was performed according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. The search was performed on PubMed and Scopus databases. Only studies that provided data concerning sleep, or pre-existing sleep disorders, in acute stroke and performed a formal evaluation of delirium were included. Results: The literature search enabled the identification of 15 studies, which exhibited high heterogeneity in terms of study design, settings, sleep assessments, delirium measures, and types of sleep intervention. In the study quality assessment, the majority of the studies were rated as weak or moderate. In most of the cases, sleep was subjectively assessed by the patients or rated by clinicians. None of the studies performed polysomnography for the evaluation of sleep. Only four of the studies assessed the impact of a sleep intervention on delirium, suggesting the potentially protective role of sleep promotion in reducing the prevalence and severity of stroke-related delirium. Conclusions: The evidence arising from the present systematic review supports that sleep disruption is a potential promoting factor for stroke-related delirium. We suggest that a formal sleep assessment and sleep promotion should be included in routine stroke care.