Signaling Through Scaffold, Anchoring, and Adaptor ProteinsTony Pawson, John D. Scott
The process by which extracellular signals are relayed from the plasma membrane to specific intracellular sites is an essential facet of cellular regulation. Many signaling pathways do so by altering the phosphorylation state of tyrosine, serine, or threonine residues of target proteins. Recently, it has become apparent that regulatory mechanisms exist to influence where and when protein kinases and phosphatases are activated in the cell. The role of scaffold, anchoring, and adaptor proteins that contribute to the specificity of signal transduction events by recruiting active enzymes into signaling networks or by placing enzymes close to their substrates is discussed.