DOI: 10.3390/medicina59091555 ISSN:

Sex Differences among Overweight/Obese Kidney Transplant Recipients Requiring Oxygen Support Amid the COVID-19 Pandemic

Alexandre Veronese-Araújo, Débora D. de Lucena, Isabella Aguiar-Brito, Marina P. Cristelli, Hélio Tedesco-Silva, José O. Medina-Pestana, Érika B. Rangel
  • General Medicine

Background and Objectives: Overweight/obesity puts individuals at greater risk for COVID-19 progression and mortality. We aimed to evaluate the impact of overweight/obesity on oxygen (O2) requirement outcomes of male and female kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of a cohort of KTRs diagnosed with COVID-19. Participants were stratified based on BMI categories, and data on the need for O2 therapy outcome were collected and analyzed separately for male and female KTRs. Results: In total, 284 KTRs (97 males and 187 females) were included in the study. Overweight/obesity was observed in 60.6% of male KTRs and 71% of female KTRs. Strikingly, overweight/obese women had a significantly higher requirement for supplemental O2 (63.3% vs. 41.7%, OR = 2.45, p = 0.03), particularly among older individuals (OR = 1.05, p = 0.04), smokers (OR = 4.55, p = 0.03), those with elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels (OR = 1.01, p = 0.006), and those with lower admission and basal estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) levels. Within this cohort, the necessity for O2 supplementation was correlated with more unfavorable outcomes. These included heightened mortality rates, transfers to the intensive care unit, employment of invasive mechanical ventilation, and the emergence of acute kidney injury requiring hemodialysis. On the other hand, although overweight/obese male KTRs had a higher prevalence of hypertension and higher fasting blood glucose levels, no significant association was found with COVID-19-related outcomes when compared to lean male KTRs. Conclusions: Overweight/obesity is highly prevalent in KTRs, and overweight/obese women demonstrated a higher need for supplemental O2. Therefore, the early identification of factors that predict a worse outcome in overweight/obese female KTRs affected by COVID-19 contributes to risk stratification and guides therapeutic decisions.

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