Seven Hints That Early-Time New Physics Alone Is Not Sufficient to Solve the Hubble TensionSunny Vagnozzi
- General Physics and Astronomy
The Hubble tension has now grown to a level of significance which can no longer be ignored and calls for a solution which, despite a huge number of attempts, has so far eluded us. Significant efforts in the literature have focused on early-time modifications of ΛCDM, introducing new physics operating prior to recombination and reducing the sound horizon. In this opinion paper I argue that early-time new physics alone will always fall short of fully solving the Hubble tension. I base my arguments on seven independent hints, related to (1) the ages of the oldest astrophysical objects, (2) considerations on the sound horizon-Hubble constant degeneracy directions in cosmological data, (3) the important role of cosmic chronometers, (4) a number of “descending trends” observed in a wide variety of low-redshift datasets, (5) the early integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect as an early-time consistency test of ΛCDM, (6) early-Universe physics insensitive and uncalibrated cosmic standard constraints on the matter density, and finally (7) equality wavenumber-based constraints on the Hubble constant from galaxy power spectrum measurements. I argue that a promising way forward should ultimately involve a combination of early- and late-time (but non-local—in a cosmological sense, i.e., at high redshift) new physics, as well as local (i.e., at z∼0) new physics, and I conclude by providing reflections with regards to potentially interesting models which may also help with the S8 tension.