Risk Stratification in Primary Biliary CholangitisFrancesco Martini, Daniele Balducci, Martina Mancinelli, Valerio Buzzanca, Elena Fracchia, Giuseppe Tarantino, Antonio Benedetti, Marco Marzioni, Luca Maroni
- General Medicine
Primary Biliary Cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic cholestatic liver disease with a heterogeneous presentation, symptomatology, disease progression, and response to therapy. The current risk stratification assessment, aimed at identifying patients with a higher risk of disease progression, encompasses an in-depth analysis of demographic data, clinical and laboratory findings, antibody profiles, and the evaluation of liver fibrosis using both invasive and noninvasive techniques. Treatment response scores after one year of therapy remain to date a major factor influencing the prognosis of PBC patients. While the initial therapeutic approach with ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is universally applied, new second-line treatment options have recently emerged, with many others under investigation. Consequently, the prevailing one-size-fits-all approach is poised to be supplanted by tailored strategies, ensuring high-risk patients receive the most appropriate treatment regimen from diagnosis. This will require the development of a risk prediction model to assess, at the time of diagnosis, the course, outcome, and response to first and additional treatments of PBC patients. This manuscript provides a comprehensive overview of the current and emerging tools used for risk stratification in PBC and speculates on how these developments might shape the disease landscape in the near future.