DOI: 10.1111/edt.12882 ISSN:

Risk factors associated with traumatic dental injuries in individuals with special healthcare needs—A systematic review and meta‐analysis

Pavithra Devi K., Nitesh Tewari, Anne O'Connell, Sukeshana Srivastav, Amritha Rajeswary, Ashish Dutt Upadhyay, Partha Haldar, Morankar Rahul, Vijay Prakash Mathur, Kalpana Bansal
  • Oral Surgery



Individuals with special healthcare needs (SHCN) are more likely to sustain traumatic dental injuries (TDIs) due to distinct risk factors. The aim of this review was to assess various risk factors associated with TDIs in individuals with SHCN.

Materials and Methods

The protocol was designed according to the recommendations of the Cochrane‐handbook, Joanna Briggs Institute, and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta‐Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and registered in PROSPERO (CRD42022357422). A comprehensive search was performed in PubMed, LILACS, Web of Science, EMBASE and Scopus using a pre‐defined strategy without any limitation of language and year of publication. It was last updated on 25 April 2023. Studies addressing the TDIs in individuals with SHCN were included. Data extraction and analyses were performed, risk of bias (ROB) assessment was done using the Joanna Briggs Institute's critical appraisal tool, and a meta‐analysis was performed using random‐effects model.


A total of 21 studies were included in the review. They were categorized according to the target disease/condition: cerebral palsy (n = 5), ADHD and autism spectrum disorders (n = 5), visually impaired (n = 4), and multiple disorders (n = 7). The studies showed variability in the design and methods; however, 17 out of 21 studies showed moderate to low ROB. Increased overjet and lip incompetence were the main risk factors reported in the studies. The commonest injuries were observed to be enamel and enamel and dentine fractures.


The overall pooled prevalence of TDI in individuals with special healthcare needs was 23.16% with 20.98% in males and 27.06% in females. Overjet >3 mm and inadequate lip coverage were found to be associated with a higher risk of TDI in all the categories of individuals with special healthcare needs except ADHD and ASD. Falls at home in cerebral palsy, falls while walking and self‐harm in ADHD and ASD, falls at home and collision in visual impairment, and unspecified falls in multiple disorders could be identified as the most common cause of TDI.

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