DOI: 10.3390/pr11092566 ISSN:

Review on Waste-to-Energy Approaches toward a Circular Economy in Developed and Developing Countries

Shahabaldin Rezania, Bahareh Oryani, Vahid Reza Nasrollahi, Negisa Darajeh, Majid Lotfi Ghahroud, Kamyar Mehranzamir
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Chemical Engineering (miscellaneous)
  • Bioengineering

International interest in using waste-to-energy (WtE) technology toward a circular economy (CE) is developing, spurred by environmental challenges such as inefficient solid waste dumping, pollution, and resource depletion. Incineration, pyrolysis, gasification, landfill, and anaerobic digestion are standard WtE technologies. Although these methods have been used for many decades, all countries try to implement the best plans based on their technologies and capacities. Therefore, an up-to-date comprehensive study is needed to evaluate the existing barriers to draw a logical roadmap for WtE to CE. Therefore, this review addresses the recent policies adopted by developed and developing countries for WtE technologies. Based on the findings, most countries seek the most cost-effective and environmentally sustainable pathways in WtE to CE; meanwhile, international collaboration and governmental support are needed to overcome the existing barriers and find a sustainable and economically viable plan for both developed and developing countries in the future.

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