DOI: 10.1182/blood.2023020075 ISSN: 0006-4971

How I treat posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder

Jennifer E. Amengual, Barbara Pro
  • Cell Biology
  • Hematology
  • Immunology
  • Biochemistry


Posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) is an important and potentially life-threatening complication of solid organ transplant and hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). Given the heterogeneity of PTLD and the risk of infectious complications in patients with immunosuppression, the treatment of this disease remains challenging. Monomorphic PTLD and lymphoma of B-cell origin account for the majority of cases. Treatment strategies for PTLD consist of response-adapted, risk-stratified methods using immunosuppression reduction, immunotherapy, and/or chemotherapy. With this approach, ∼25% of the patients do not need chemotherapy. Outcomes for patients with high risk or those who do not respond to frontline therapies remain dismal, and novel treatments are needed in this setting. PTLD is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection in 60% to 80% of cases, making EBV-directed therapy an attractive treatment modality. Recently, the introduction of adoptive immunotherapies has become a promising option for refractory cases; hopefully, these treatment strategies can be used as earlier lines of therapy in the future.

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