DOI: 10.3390/foods13060872 ISSN: 2304-8158

Heart-Cutting Bidimensional Liquid Chromatography for the Simultaneous Analysis of Veterinary Drugs Residues and Nucleotide Monophosphates in Sheep’s Milk

Noelia Caballero-Casero, Diego García-Gómez, José Luis Pérez Pavón, Encarnación Rodríguez-Gonzalo
  • Plant Science
  • Health Professions (miscellaneous)
  • Health (social science)
  • Microbiology
  • Food Science

Sheep’s milk is a significant source of nucleotide monophosphates (NMPs) but can also contain undesirable residues from veterinary drugs, posing a potential human health risk. This study introduces a novel application of two-dimensional liquid chromatography (2D-LC), in heart-cutting mode, for the simultaneous determination of nucleotides and veterinary drug residues in sheep’s milk. 2D-LC allows for the separation of these compounds in a single chromatographic run despite their differing physicochemical properties. The proposed method separates six veterinary drug residues and five NMPs in a single injection. The compounds were separated using a C18 reversed-phase column in the first dimension and a Primesep SB analytical column in the second dimension. The method performance was evaluated in terms of linearity range, detection and quantification limits, matrix effects, precision, and accuracy. The results demonstrated good linearity and sensitivity, with quantification limits allowing for the quantification of veterinary drugs at the maximum residue level and nucleotides at typical levels found in milk samples. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of sheep’s milk samples acquired from local supermarkets, with recoveries within a range of 70–119% and 82–117% for veterinary residues and NMPs, respectively.

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