DOI: 10.3390/antiox13020223 ISSN: 2076-3921

Halofantrine Hydrochloride Acts as an Antioxidant Ability Inhibitor That Enhances Oxidative Stress Damage to Candida albicans

Juan Xiong, Li Wang, Zhe Feng, Sijin Hang, Jinhua Yu, Yanru Feng, Hui Lu, Yuanying Jiang
  • Cell Biology
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Biochemistry
  • Physiology

Candida albicans, a prominent opportunistic pathogenic fungus in the human population, possesses the capacity to induce life-threatening invasive candidiasis in individuals with compromised immune systems despite the existence of antifungal medications. When faced with macrophages or neutrophils, C. albicans demonstrates its capability to endure oxidative stress through the utilization of antioxidant enzymes. Therefore, the enhancement of oxidative stress in innate immune cells against C. albicans presents a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of invasive candidiasis. In this study, we conducted a comprehensive analysis of a library of drugs approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). We discovered that halofantrine hydrochloride (HAL) can augment the antifungal properties of oxidative damage agents (plumbagin, menadione, and H2O2) by suppressing the response of C. albicans to reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, our investigation revealed that the inhibitory mechanism of HAL on the oxidative response is dependent on Cap1. In addition, the antifungal activity of HAL has been observed in the Galleria mellonella infection model. These findings provide evidence that targeting the oxidative stress response of C. albicans and augmenting the fungicidal capacity of oxidative damage agents hold promise as effective antifungal strategies.

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