DOI: 10.4103/ijoy.ijoy_175_23 ISSN: 0973-6131

Experiential Avoidance as a Mediator of the Relationship between Dispositional Mindfulness and Problematic Smartphone Use

George Felix, Manoj Kumar Sharma, Nitin Anand, Binukumar Bhaskarapillai, Ajay Kumar
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Immunology
  • Immunology and Allergy



Experiential avoidance (EA) and mindfulness are the two important transdiagnostic process and outcome variables in psychological formulation and treatment. While smartphones have a large utility value, they also have the potential for adverse impacts on functioning. Studies have separately shown associations among EA, dispositional mindfulness (DM), and problematic smartphone use (PSU). However, there is a lack of study exploring the associations and mediation relationship among these variables together in an Indian context. The current study aims to explore the associations of PSU, DM, EA, and sociodemographic factors; including the mediating effect of EA between DM and PSU in the Indian adult context.


Four hundred and thirty-four participants (M age = 25.4, standard deviation = 2.6, 58.8% females) were recruited for an online survey using a cross-sectional design. Data were collected using sociodemographic questionnaire, Smartphone Addiction Scale-Short Version, brief EA scale, and Mindfulness Attention Awareness Scale. Statistical analyses comprised multiple regression, mediation analysis, and significance in sociodemographic variables.


Both EA and DM significantly predicted PSU with a 37% variance; however, DM had an inverse relationship. EA as a mediator could account for a quarter of the effect, PM = 24.4%, ab = −0.14, 95% CIcs (−0.19, −0.09).


The current study implicates the monitoring and treatment planning for PSU from a transdiagnostic perspective in the Indian context.

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