DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics12121725 ISSN: 2079-6382

European Wild Carnivores and Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria: A Review

Andreia Garcês, Isabel Pires
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • General Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics
  • Biochemistry
  • Microbiology

Antibiotic resistance is a global concern that affects not only human health but also the health of wildlife and the environment. Wildlife can serve as reservoirs for antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and antibiotics in veterinary medicine and agriculture can contribute to the development of resistance in these populations. Several European carnivore species, such as wolves, foxes, otters, and bears, can be exposed to antibiotics by consuming contaminated food, water, or other resources in their habitats. These animals can also be indirectly exposed to antibiotics through interactions with domestic animals and human activities in their environment. Antibiotic resistance in wildlife can harm ecosystem health and also impact human health indirectly through various pathways, including zoonotic disease transmission. Moreover, the spread of resistant bacteria in wildlife can complicate conservation efforts, as it can threaten already endangered species. This review aims to describe the presence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in wild carnivores in Europe.

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