DOI: 10.37349/ei.2024.00134 ISSN: 2768-6655

Entrance to the multifaceted world of CD4+ T cell subsets

Murilo Porfírio de Aguiar, Julia Hailer Vieira
  • General Medicine

This review provides a detailed examination of CD4+ T lymphocyte subsets, crucial components of the immune system originating from the thymus. This study explores the distinct roles and mechanisms of various T helper (Th) cell subsets, including Th1, Th2, Th17, Th22, regulatory T cells (Tregs), Th9, and T follicular helper (Tfh) cells, focusing on their induction by specific cytokines, regulation by transcription factors, and the production of post-induction cytokines. The study traces the historical origins of Th lymphocyte research, emphasizing the unique cytokine profiles and functional implications of each subset in immune regulation and pathology, including autoimmune diseases, allergies, and cancer. Key findings include the delineation of cytokine-mediated induction processes, highlighting factors like interferon-gamma (IFN-γ), interleukin-4 (IL-4), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β), and IL-6. The review delves into transcription factors such as T-box transcription factor 21 (T-bet), GATA binding protein 3 (GATA3), and forkhead box P3 (Foxp3), underlying the lineage-specific development of these cells, and discusses the significant roles of post-induction cytokines. The research underscores the clinical relevance of CD4+ T cell subset dysregulation in various diseases, advocating for a nuanced understanding of these subsets for potential therapeutic advancements in immune-related disorders.

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