DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2024.540-549 ISSN: 2231-0916

Effects of extruded flaxseed and Salmate® inclusion in the diet on milk yield and composition, ruminal fermentation and degradation, and kinetic flow of digesta and fluid in lactating dairy cows in the subtropics

Mohammed Al-Saiady, Tarek Al-Shaheen, Ahmed El-Waziry, Abd El-Nasser Ahmed Mohammed
  • General Veterinary

Background and Aim: Dietary supplements play pivotal roles in promoting productive and reproductive performance in ruminant animals. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effects of extruded flaxseed and Salmate® (Ballard Group, Inc, OH, USA) inclusion in diets on milk yield and composition, ruminal degradation and fermentation, and flow of fluids and digesta in lactating cattle. Materials and Methods: Six rumen-fistulated Holstein lactating cows were distributed to a 6 × 6 design of Latin square (L.S.). The groups were assorted into a control group fed a basal control diet and two treated groups fed diets containing extruded flaxseed (7.0%) or Salmate® (25 g/head/day). The basal control, extruded flaxseed, and Salmate® diets were formulated as isonitrogenous and isoenergetic. Each L.S. period of the group comprised 21 days, including 10 days for adaptation to the diet and 11 days for data sampling and recording. Results: Feed intake did not differ among the control, extruded flaxseed, and Salmate® groups. Milk yield (kg) and protein and fat composition (%) were improved on feeding the extruded flaxseed diet compared with the Salmate® and control diets. Extruded flaxseed or Salmate® diet had no effect on the values of ruminal pH, ammonia, and volatile fatty acids except isobutyrate, which decreased in the Salmate® group. Degradable efficiency and ruminal digestibility were significantly decreased with the inclusion of extruded flaxseed and/or Salmate® in the diets. The extruded flaxseed and Salmate® groups had a greater digesta passage rate than the control group. The extruded flaxseed and control groups had a greater liquid passage rate than the Salmate® group. Conclusion: The inclusion of extruded flaxseed in the diet improved (p < 0.05) milk yield, milk composition, and milk Omega-6: Omega-3 ratio with no changes in ruminal fermentation, notable negative effects on degradable efficiency and ruminal digestibility. Keywords: degradability, flaxseed, passage rate, Salmate® ruminal fermentation.

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