DOI: 10.3390/ani14060884 ISSN: 2076-2615

Early Intensive Neurorehabilitation in Traumatic Peripheral Nerve Injury—State of the Art

Débora Gouveia, Ana Cardoso, Carla Carvalho, Ana Catarina Oliveira, António Almeida, Óscar Gamboa, Bruna Lopes, André Coelho, Rui Alvites, Artur Severo Varejão, Ana Colette Maurício, António Ferreira, Ângela Martins
  • General Veterinary
  • Animal Science and Zoology

Traumatic nerve injuries are common lesions that affect several hundred thousand humans, as well as dogs and cats. The assessment of nerve regeneration through animal models may provide information for translational research and future therapeutic options that can be applied mutually in veterinary and human medicine, from a One Health perspective. This review offers a hands-on vision of the non-invasive and conservative approaches to peripheral nerve injury, focusing on the role of neurorehabilitation in nerve repair and regeneration. The peripheral nerve injury may lead to hypersensitivity, allodynia and hyperalgesia, with the possibility of joint contractures, decreasing functionality and impairing the quality of life. The question remains regarding how to improve nerve repair with surgical possibilities, but also considering electrical stimulation modalities by modulating sensory feedback, upregulation of BDNF, GFNF, TrKB and adenosine monophosphate, maintaining muscle mass and modulating fatigue. This could be improved by the positive synergetic effect of exercises and physical activity with locomotor training, and other physical modalities (low-level laser therapy, ultrasounds, pulsed electromagnetic fields, electroacupuncture and others). In addition, the use of cell-based therapies is an innovative treatment tool in this field. These strategies may help avoid situations of permanent monoplegic limbs that could lead to amputation.

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