DOI: 10.3390/app14062248 ISSN: 2076-3417

Dual-Targeting Gold Nanoparticles: Simultaneous Decoration with Ligands for Co-Transporters SGLT-1 and B0AT1

Giuseppe D’Orazio, Marco Marradi, Barbara La Ferla
  • Fluid Flow and Transfer Processes
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • General Engineering
  • Instrumentation
  • General Materials Science

Sodium–glucose co-transporter 1 (SGLT1) and sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter (B0AT1) are mainly expressed on the membrane of enterocytes, a type of epithelial cell found in the intestines. In addition to their physiological role in the absorption of nutrients, a protective role in the integrity of the intestinal barrier has been established. The natural ligands of SGLT1 (d-glucose) and of B0AT1 (l-glutamine) can trigger a protective anti-inflammatory effect on the intestinal epithelium. The literature suggests the activation of common intracellular pathways upon engagement of the two transporters, whose functional forms are composed of oligomers or clusters. Simultaneous activation of these two co-transporters could lead to a potential multitarget and synergistic anti-inflammatory effect. Therefore, nanoplatforms containing multiple copies of the ligands could represent chemical tools to study the potential simultaneous activation of the two co-transporters. For these reasons, in this study, a set of different gold nanoparticles decorated with derivatives of d-glucose and of l-glutamine were designed and prepared. In particular, the synthesis of suitable sulfur-ending functionalized ligand derivatives, including a C-glucoside derivative, their anchoring to gold nanoparticles and their physical–chemical characterization have been carried out. The obtained nanostructures could represent promising multifunctional platforms for further investigation of the existence of possible multitarget and synergistic effects toward the two co-transporters SGLT1 and B0AT1.

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