DOI: 10.2478/raon-2024-0018 ISSN: 1581-3207

Dosimetry and efficiency comparison of knowledge-based and manual planning using volumetric modulated arc therapy for craniospinal irradiation

Wei-Ta Tsai, Hui-Ling Hsieh, Shih-Kai Hung, Chi-Fu Zeng, Ming-Fen Lee, Po-Hao Lin, Chia-Yi Lin, Wei-Chih Li, Wen-Yen Chiou, Tung-Hsin Wu
  • Radiology, Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Oncology



Craniospinal irradiation (CSI) poses a challenge to treatment planning due to the large target, field junction, and multiple organs at risk (OARs) involved. The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of knowledge-based planning (KBP) in CSI by comparing original manual plans (MP), KBP RapidPlan initial plans (RPI), and KBP RapidPlan final plans (RPF), which received further re-optimization to meet the dose constraints.

Patients and methods

Dose distributions in the target were evaluated in terms of coverage, mean dose, conformity index (CI), and homogeneity index (HI). The dosimetric results of OARs, planning time, and monitor unit (MU) were evaluated.


All MP and RPF plans met the plan goals, and 89.36% of RPI plans met the plan goals. The Wilcoxon tests showed comparable target coverage, CI, and HI for the MP and RPF groups; however, worst plan quality was demonstrated in the RPI plans than in MP and RPF. For the OARs, RPF and RPI groups had better dosimetric results than the MP group (P < 0.05 for optic nerves, eyes, parotid glands, and heart). The planning time was significantly reduced by the KBP from an average of 677.80 min in MP to 227.66 min (P < 0.05) and 307.76 min (P < 0.05) in RPI, and RPF, respectively. MU was not significantly different between these three groups.


The KBP can significantly reduce planning time in CSI. Manual re-optimization after the initial KBP is recommended to enhance the plan quality.

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