Cesare Faldini, Leonardo Tassinari, Davide Pederiva, Valentino Rossomando, Matteo Brunello, Federico Pilla, Giuseppe Geraci, Francesco Traina, Alberto Di Martino

Direct Anterior Approach in Total Hip Arthroplasty for Severe Crowe IV Dysplasia: Retrospective Clinical and Radiological Study

  • General Medicine

Background and Objectives: total hip arthroplasty (THA) for Crowe IV hip dysplasia poses challenges due to severe leg shortening, muscle retraction and bone stock issues, leading to an increased neurological complication, and revision rate. The direct anterior approach (DAA) is used for minimally invasive THA but its role in Crowe IV dysplasia is unclear. This retrospective study examines if DAA effectively restores hip biomechanics in Crowe IV dysplasia patients with <4 cm leg length discrepancy, managing soft tissue and yielding functional improvement, limb length correction, and limited complications. Materials and Methods: 19 patients with unilateral Crowe IV hip osteoarthritis and <4 cm leg length discrepancy undergoing DAA THA were reviewed. Surgery involved gradual soft tissue release, precise acetabular cup positioning, and stem placement without femoral osteotomy. Results: results were evaluated clinically and radiographically, with complications recorded. Follow-up revealed significant Harris Hip Score and limb length discrepancy improvements. Abductor muscle insufficiency was present in 21%. The acetabular component was accurately placed, centralizing the prosthetic joint’s rotation. Complications occurred in 16% of cases, including fractures, nerve issues, and infection. DAA in THA showcased positive outcomes for hip function, limb length, and biomechanics in Crowe IV dysplasia. Conclusions: the technique enabled accurate cup positioning and rotation center adjustment. Complications were managed well without implant revisions. DAA is a viable option for Crowe IV dysplasia, restoring hip function, biomechanics, and reducing limb length discrepancy. Larger, longer studies are needed for validation.

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