Zelipha N. Kabubii, James M. Mbaria, Peter Mbaabu Mathiu, John M. Wanjohi, Evans N. Nyaboga

Diet Supplementation with Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) Leaf Powder Exhibits an Antidiabetic Property in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats

  • General Medicine

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder that has a high global health burden and causes high mortality and morbidity in humans. Medicinal herbs and plants offer a promising alternative to conventional therapies for the management of diabetes. Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a traditional medicinal herb that has been used for the management of several diseases. Therefore, the present study investigates the antidiabetic properties of diets supplemented with R. officinalis leaf powder on streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats. First, the phytochemicals and 2,2-dephenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free-radical scavenging activity of aqueous R. officinalis leaf extract were determined. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic male Wistar rats were fed a diet supplemented with R. officinalis leaf powder (ROP) at 3%, 6%, and 12%, respectively, for 6 weeks. Investigations of food intake, body weight, rat relative organ weights, blood glucose, lipid profiles, creatinine, bilirubin, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) were estimated according to standard procedures. The results show that ROP aqueous extract contains significant amounts of phenolics, flavonoids, and tannins, which exhibit in vitro DPPH free-radical scavenging activity. Based on an in vivo study, ROP reduced blood glucose levels in streptozotocin-induced diabetic animals (p < 0.05). Dietary supplementation with ROP in diabetic rats significantly (p < 0.05) lowered ALT, AST, bilirubin, creatinine, total triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) levels while increasing high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) when compared with the diabetic control group. Our findings demonstrate that a diet supplemented with R. officinalis leaf powder exhibits an antidiabetic potential with improved health outcomes, as demonstrated by the improved lipid and liver profile enzymes in our animal model.

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