DOI: 10.1002/adma.202310875 ISSN: 0935-9648

Developing Hypoxia‐Sensitive System via Designing Tumor‐Targeted Fullerene‐Based Photosensitizer for Multimodal Therapy of Deep Tumor

Lei Li, Jiaju Fu, Jiahao Ye, Lei Liu, Zihao Sun, Haoyu Wang, Shuangjie Tan, Mingming Zhen, Chunru Wang, Chunli Bai
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • General Materials Science


Photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been approved for clinic. However, powerless efficiency for deep hypoxic tumor therapy remains an enormous challenge for PDT. Herein, a hypoxia‐sensitive nanotherapeutic system (FTCD‐SRGD) based on fullerene (C70) and anoxic activating chemical prodrug tirapazamine (TPZ) is rationally designed for multimodal therapy of deep hypoxic tumors. To enhance the accumulation and achieve specific drug release in tumor, the FTCD‐SRGD is modified with cyclo(Arg‐Gly‐Asp‐d‐Phe‐Lys) (cRGDfK) peptide and disulfide bonds. With the exacerbated hypoxic microenvironment created by C70 consuming O2 for generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), TPZ is activated to produce toxic radical species to ablate deep tumors, which achieves a synergistic treatment of C70‐mediated PDT and hypoxia‐enhanced chemotherapy. Additionally, given this hypoxia‐sensitive system‐induced immunogenic cell death (ICD) activating anticancer cytotoxic T lymphocyte to result in more susceptible tumor to immunotherapy, FTCD‐SRGD plus immune checkpoint inhibitor (anti‐PD‐L1) fully inhibit deep hypoxic tumors by promoting infiltration of effector T cells in tumors. Collectively, it is the first time to develop a multimodal therapy system with fullerene‐based hypoxia‐sensitive PS for deep tumors. The powerful multimodal nanotherapeutic system for combining hypoxia‐enhanced PDT and immunotherapy to massacre deep hypoxic tumors can provide a paradigm to combat the present bottleneck of tumor therapy.

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