Nedjma Mamine, Nedjoud Grara, Fadila Khaldi, Viviana Maresca, Khaoula Aouaichia, Adriana Basile

Determination of the Toxic Effects of Heavy Metals on the Morpho-Anatomical Responses of the Leaf of Typha latifolia as a Biomonitoring Tool

  • Plant Science
  • Ecology
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

Typha latifolia leaves act as sensitive barometers for trace heavy metal pollution, as revealed by their pronounced anatomical responses in a constructed wetland. Monthly water samples and Typha latifolia leaf tissue were collected over three consecutive months in 2018 from the Burgas Lake wetlands (Taoura), northeast Algeria. While physical and chemical parameters improved after treatment, atomic absorption spectrometry (Perkin Elmer A Analyst 800 AAS) detected persistent trace levels of cadmium, chromium, and lead in both the treated water and leaf tissue, highlighting the need for continued phytoremediation efforts. Microscopic examination of leaf tissue exposed to these metals revealed distinct anatomical adaptations, including shrunken vascular bundles, altered cell shapes, and stomatal closure. These findings underscore Typha latifolia’s effectiveness in accumulating heavy metals and its potential as a highly sensitive biomonitor for persistent pollution in lake ecosystems.

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