DOI: 10.1182/blood.2023020441 ISSN: 0006-4971

Cryo-EM structures of human arachidonate 12S-lipoxygenase bound to endogenous and exogenous inhibitors

Jesse I. Mobbs, Katrina A. Black, Michelle Tran, Wessel A. C. Burger, Hariprasad Venugopal, Theodore R. Holman, Michael Holinstat, David M. Thal, Alisa Glukhova
  • Cell Biology
  • Hematology
  • Immunology
  • Biochemistry


Human 12-lipoxygenase (12-LOX) is a key enzyme involved in platelet activation, and the regulation of its activity has been targeted for the treatment of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. Despite the clinical importance of 12-LOX, the exact mechanisms by which it affects platelet activation are not fully understood, and the lack of structural information has limited drug discovery efforts. In this study, we used single-particle cryo-electron microscopy to determine high-resolution structures (1.7-2.8 Å) of human 12-LOX. Our results showed that 12-LOX can exist in multiple oligomeric states, from monomer to hexamer, which may affect its catalytic activity and membrane association. We also identified different conformations within the 12-LOX dimer, which likely represent different time points in its catalytic cycle. Furthermore, we identified small molecules bound to 12-LOX. The active site of the 12-LOX tetramer was occupied by an endogenous 12-LOX inhibitor, a long-chain acyl coenzyme A. In addition, we found that the 12-LOX hexamer can simultaneously bind to arachidonic acid and ML355, a selective 12-LOX inhibitor that has passed a phase 1 clinical trial for the treatment of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia and received a fast-track designation by the Food and Drug Administration. Overall, our findings provide novel insights into the assembly of 12-LOX oligomers, their catalytic mechanism, and small molecule binding, paving the way for further drug development targeting the 12-LOX enzyme.

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