DOI: 10.3390/su16062247 ISSN: 2071-1050

Coordinated Configuration of SOPs and DESSs in an Active Distribution Network Considering Social Welfare Maximization

Guocheng Liu, Weiqing Sun, Haoyun Hong, Gang Shi
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Building and Construction

In recent years, the penetration rate of intermittent distributed generation (DG) in active distribution networks has been steadily increasing, leading to prominent issues such as voltage violations and network congestion. Coordinated operation of soft open points (SOPs) and distributed energy storage systems (DESSs) enable flexible resource management in both spatial and temporal dimensions, allowing real-time voltage regulation and flow control. This enhances the controllability, sustainability, and economic efficiency of the distribution network, ultimately improving user satisfaction. The optimization of this coordinated configuration has become a central challenge in research. Taking the different characteristics of DESSs and SOPs into account, this paper proposes a coordinated configuration method by introducing local marginal price (LMP) under the configuration scheme. The framework is modeled as a three-level problem, including planning and operation levels. Initially, typical scenarios are generated to address the uncertainty of distributed generation operation. At the upper level, the DESS configuration is optimized to minimize annual operational costs, while at the middle level, SOPs are planned based on the annual comprehensive operational cost of the distribution network. At the lower level, the objective is set as social welfare maximization to reflect user satisfaction by incorporating LMP as a planning indicator. It is then transformed and solved as a mixed-integer second-order programming model with a hybrid optimization algorithm. The model is established with the modified IEEE 33-node distribution system as a case study to validate the feasibility of the proposed configuration method. The case study results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in optimally configuring SOPs with DESSs to reduce overall annual operating costs and enhance the economic efficiency of the system.

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