Alessandra N. Hamlin, Seth Locker, Elodie Huguet, Clifford R. Berry, Robert Cole, John F. Griffin IV, Christine Gremillion, Silke Hecht, Federico R. Vilaplana Grosso

Computed tomographic characteristics of confirmed and presumed noncutaneous pythiosis in 25 dogs

  • General Veterinary

AbstractPythium insidiosum is an aquatic oomycete that causes granulomatous infection in dogs, most commonly cutaneous and gastrointestinal. Ultrasonographic characteristics of gastrointestinal pythiosis have been described; occasionally, CT is utilized in the clinical setting, and CT features of pythiosis have not been published. The purpose of this retrospective, multicenter, descriptive study is to describe CT characteristics of noncutaneous canine pythiosis. The following CT parameters were recorded: lesion anatomic location, number, shape, margination, size, attenuation pre‐ and postcontrast, enhancement pattern, lymph nodes affected, other lesions identified, and presence of peritoneal effusion or steatitis. Descriptive statistics demonstrating the frequency of lesion appearances were performed. Twenty‐five dogs with noncutaneous pythiosis lesions that underwent CT were included; 19 had primarily gastrointestinal infections, four primarily arterial infections, one intrathoracic and intra‐abdominal infection, and one primary pulmonary infection. In dogs with primary gastrointestinal infection, lesions were most common at the ileocolic junction and were most frequently focal, well‐defined, moderate to marked circumferential wall thickening that was homogeneous and smoothly marginated precontrast, with moderate heterogeneous contrast enhancement. Most dogs had involvement of multiple gastrointestinal regions. Of four dogs with primary arterial involvement, three had large aneurysmal dilatations of the cranial mesenteric artery with severe mural thickening. All dogs had regional lymphadenopathy, which was variable but generally mild. Nine dogs had peritoneal effusion; six dogs had steatitis. CT features of pythiosis can overlap with neoplasia, but pythiosis should be considered as a differential, especially in young dogs. Findings supported using CT as an adjunct imaging test for increasing clinical suspicion of noncutaneous pythiosis.

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