DOI: 10.1002/est2.587 ISSN: 2578-4862

Comprehensive risk assessment of a renewables‐based stand‐alone electric vehicle charging station with multiple energy storage technologies

Abdulla Al Wahedi, Yusuf Bicer
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology


This study presents the application of a comprehensive risk assessment and risk management framework on a grid‐independent and renewable energy‐based electric vehicle charging station with multiple energy storage techniques including hydrogen and ammonia. The design comprises complex subsystems such as concentrated photovoltaic thermal, wind turbine, biomass standby generator, hydrogen storage, fuel cell, Ammonia storage and fuel cell, Lithium‐ion battery storage, Salt‐hydrate thermal storage, lithium‐bromide absorption cooling, and fast charging units. Systematic risk‐based approaches compromising multiple phases and qualitative and quantitative risk assessment techniques are applied to identify the causes and consequences of potentially critical events associated with the incorporated subsystems and components. The results show that out of 15 identified technical, economic, environmental, and health and safety risks, three health and safety risks were found unacceptable with risk values above 14. In contrast, three technical, three environmental, two health and safety, and one economic risks were found undesirable with risk values between 8 and 12. Appropriate preventive and protective measures are applied to lessen the high‐risk levels to acceptable safe limits below 6. Proper safety barriers and distances are considered while recommending the associated subsystems and components' optimal physical site distribution plan.

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