Manman Li, Xiuhua Chen, Wangqi Huang, Kaiyue Wu, Yan Bai, Donglin Guo, Changhong Guo, Yongjun Shu

Comprehensive Identification of the β-Amylase (BAM) Gene Family in Response to Cold Stress in White Clover

  • Plant Science
  • Ecology
  • Ecology, Evolution, Behavior and Systematics

White clover (Trifolium repens L.) is an allopolyploid plant and an excellent perennial legume forage. However, white clover is subjected to various stresses during its growth, with cold stress being one of the major limiting factors affecting its growth and development. Beta-amylase (BAM) is an important starch-hydrolyzing enzyme that plays a significant role in starch degradation and responses to environmental stress. In this study, 21 members of the BAM gene family were identified in the white clover genome. A phylogenetic analysis using BAMs from Arabidopsis divided TrBAMs into four groups based on sequence similarity. Through analysis of conserved motifs, gene duplication, synteny analysis, and cis-acting elements, a deeper understanding of the structure and evolution of TrBAMs in white clover was gained. Additionally, a gene regulatory network (GRN) containing TrBAMs was constructed; gene ontology (GO) annotation analysis revealed close interactions between TrBAMs and AMY (α-amylase) and DPE (4-alpha-glucanotransferase). To determine the function of TrBAMs under various tissues and stresses, RNA-seq datasets were analyzed, showing that most TrBAMs were significantly upregulated in response to biotic and abiotic stresses and the highest expression in leaves. These results were validated through qRT-PCR experiments, indicating their involvement in multiple gene regulatory pathways responding to cold stress. This study provides new insights into the structure, evolution, and function of the white clover BAM gene family, laying the foundation for further exploration of the functional mechanisms through which TrBAMs respond to cold stress.

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