DOI: 10.1111/sjop.13010 ISSN: 0036-5564

Comparing psychopathological symptoms, life satisfaction, and personality traits between the WHO and APA frameworks of gaming disorder symptoms: A psychometric investigation

Christian Bäcklund, Daniel Eriksson Sörman, Hanna M. Gavelin, Orsolya Király, Zsolt Demetrovics, Jessica K. Ljungberg
  • General Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • General Medicine


The inclusion of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) in the fifth revision of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM‐5) by the American Psychiatric Association and Gaming Disorder in the 11th revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD‐11) by the World Health Organization requires consistent psychological measures for reliable estimates. The current study aimed to investigate the psychometric properties of the Gaming Disorder Test (GDT), the Ten‐Item Internet Gaming Disorder Test (IGDT‐10), and the Five‐Item Gaming Disorder Test (GDT‐5) and to compare the WHO and the APA frameworks of gaming disorder symptoms in terms of psychopathological symptoms, life satisfaction, and personality traits.


A sample of 723 Swedish gamers was recruited (29.8% women, 68.3% men, 1.9% other, Mage = 29.50 years, SD = 8.91).


The results indicated notable differences regarding the estimated possible risk groups between the two frameworks. However, the association between gaming disorder symptoms and personality traits, life satisfaction, and psychopathological symptoms appeared consistent across the two frameworks. The results showed excellent psychometric properties in support of the one‐factor model of the GDT, IGDT‐10, and GDT‐5, including good reliability estimates (McDonald's omega) and evidence of construct validity. Additionally, the results demonstrated full gender and age measurement invariance of the GDT, IGDT‐10, and GDT‐5, indicating that gaming disorder symptoms are measured equally across the subgroups.


These findings demonstrate that the IGDT‐10, GDT‐5, and GDT are appropriate measures for assessing gaming disorder symptoms and facilitating future research in Sweden.

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