Ryan Varghese, Dileep Kumar, Rohit Sharma, Shopnil Akash

Co‐infections and immune‐evading viral hybrids: A perspective

  • General Medicine

AbstractBackground and AimsCo‐infections occur when two or more different types of pathogens infect the same host at the same time. Initially, it may develop via a primary infection and then later segue into a superinfection. Although some research suggests that coinfections do not affect the effect of disease outcomes, alternate evidence says otherwise. While the disease outcomes are frequently influenced by the interactions between many viruses, how these viruses interact during coinfections is poorly understood. This article aims to shed light on the interaction between viruses at a cellular and subcellular level, and the clinical implications for the same.MethodsThe articles were sought by conducting a thorough literature search on Google Scholar, ScienceDirect, PubMed, PubMed Central, Dimensions, and EBSCO Host, using keywords such as coinfections, virus, viral hybrids, and superinfection. The articles pertinent to the concept were then included.ResultsThere is a growing body of evidence that suggests the formation of hybrid viral particles (HVPs) which conjugate at the cellular and subcellular level. While the formation of HVPs is bizarre, it may potentially have a profound effect on the clinical manifestations.ConclusionWhile there has been evidence of the formation of HVPs between a couple of viruses, researchers fear the existence of several other combinations, including zoonotic viruses. While this could be detrimental to the human race both at an individual—as well as a community‐level, an in‐depth understanding of the same may help in better management of the clinical manifestations of the disease.

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