Cristina Manuela Drăgoi, Alina Crenguţa Nicolae, Anca Ungurianu, Denisa Marilena Margină, Daniela Grădinaru, Ion-Bogdan Dumitrescu

Circadian Rhythms, Chrononutrition, Physical Training, and Redox Homeostasis—Molecular Mechanisms in Human Health

  • General Medicine

A multitude of physiological processes, human behavioral patterns, and social interactions are intricately governed by the complex interplay between external circumstances and endogenous circadian rhythms. This multidimensional regulatory framework is susceptible to disruptions, and in contemporary society, there is a prevalent occurrence of misalignments between the circadian system and environmental cues, a phenomenon frequently associated with adverse health consequences. The onset of most prevalent current chronic diseases is intimately connected with alterations in human lifestyle practices under various facets, including the following: reduced physical activity, the exposure to artificial light, also acknowledged as light pollution, sedentary behavior coupled with consuming energy-dense nutriments, irregular eating frameworks, disruptions in sleep patterns (inadequate quality and duration), engagement in shift work, and the phenomenon known as social jetlag. The rapid evolution of contemporary life and domestic routines has significantly outpaced the rate of genetic adaptation. Consequently, the underlying circadian rhythms are exposed to multiple shifts, thereby elevating the susceptibility to disease predisposition. This comprehensive review endeavors to synthesize existing empirical evidence that substantiates the conceptual integration of the circadian clock, biochemical molecular homeostasis, oxidative stress, and the stimuli imparted by physical exercise, sleep, and nutrition.

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