Rebeca Rubens, Isabel Arruda, Rosane Almeida, Yanna Nóbrega, Maiara Carneiro, Tanise Dalmolin

Challenges in the Detection of Polymyxin Resistance: From Today to the Future

  • Virology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Microbiology

Antimicrobial resistance is known to be one of the greatest global threats to human health, and is one of the main causes of death worldwide. In this scenario, polymyxins are last-resort antibiotics to treat infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria. Currently, the reference test to evaluate the susceptibility of isolates to polymyxins is the broth microdilution method; however, this technique has numerous complications and challenges for use in laboratory routines. Several phenotypic methods have been reported as being promising for implementation in routine diagnostics, including the BMD commercial test, rapid polymyxin NP test, polymyxin elution test, culture medium with polymyxins, and the Polymyxin Drop Test, which require materials for use in routines and must be easy to perform. Furthermore, Sensititre®, molecular tests, MALDI-TOF MS, and Raman spectroscopy present reliable results, but the equipment is not found in most microbiology laboratories. In this context, this review discusses the main laboratory methodologies that allow the detection of resistance to polymyxins, elucidating the challenges and perspectives.

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