DOI: 10.1177/2050313x231220826 ISSN: 2050-313X

Case report of an infant with congenital mesoblastic nephroma leading to pulmonary metastasis

Arjuna Salinda Athapathu, Sameera M Wijayawardhana, Jithmal Meegoda, Sandini A Gunaratne, Mahendra Somathilaka, Kenneth Tou En Chang, Pujitha Wickramasinghe
  • General Medicine

Congenital mesoblastic nephroma is considered a tumour with favourable clinical behaviour with only few reported cases of metastases. We report an infant who underwent complete resection and later developed pulmonary metastasis. Ten-month-old baby girl initially presented at 3 weeks of age with macroscopic haematuria, hypertension and a lumbar mass. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed a tumour arising from the left kidney without local invasion or metastasis. She underwent left nephrectomy. Immunohistochemistry confirmed a cellular type of congenital mesoblastic nephroma. At 10 months, she presented with difficulty in breathing. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography revealed an opacity in the right hemi-thorax. Histology of lung mass was suggestive of deposits from the previously excised mesoblastic nephroma. She developed a right-sided haemothorax and succumbed. This case report highlights the fact that even though congenital mesoblastic nephromas are considered tumours with favourable clinical behaviour, they can present later with distant metastasis. Therefore, clinicians need to be aware of this rare malignant potential and adhere to meticulous follow-up protocols.

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