DOI: 10.1515/reveh-2023-0122 ISSN: 0048-7554

Cadmium exposure and thyroid hormone disruption: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Seung Min Chung, Min Cheol Chang
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Pollution
  • Health (social science)



This meta-analysis aimed to analyze the effect of cadmium (Cd) exposure on thyroid hormone disruption.


Databases including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Scopus were searched for studies published up to December 14, 2022. Studies evaluating the association between Cd exposure (blood Cd [BCd] or urine Cd [UCd]) and thyroid function (thyroid-stimulating hormone [TSH], free thyroxine [FT4], total triiodothyronine [TT3]) or thyroid autoimmunity (thyroglobulin antibody [TgAb] or thyroperoxidase Ab [TPOAb]) were included.

Summary and Outlook

This systematic review included 12 cross-sectional studies. Cd exposure showed a neutral association with TSH (pooled correlation=0.016, 95 % confidence interval [CI]=−0.013 to 0.045, p=0.277), FT4 (pooled correlation=0.028, 95 % CI=−0.005 to 0.061, p=0.098), and thyroid autoimmunity (pooled odds ratio=1.143, 95 % CI=0.820–1.591, p=0.430). However, Cd exposure showed a positive association with TT3 (pooled correlation=0.065, 95 % CI=0.050–0.080, p<0.001), which was consistent with the BCd and UCd subgroup analyses (pooled correlation=0.053 and 0.081, respectively, both p<0.001). Cd exposure was not associated with TSH, FT4, or thyroid autoimmunity but tended to increase with TT3.

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