DOI: 10.3390/a17010018 ISSN: 1999-4893

CaAIS: Cellular Automata-Based Artificial Immune System for Dynamic Environments

Alireza Rezvanian, S. Mehdi Vahidipour, Ali Mohammad Saghiri
  • Computational Mathematics
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics
  • Numerical Analysis
  • Theoretical Computer Science

Artificial immune systems (AIS), as nature-inspired algorithms, have been developed to solve various types of problems, ranging from machine learning to optimization. This paper proposes a novel hybrid model of AIS that incorporates cellular automata (CA), known as the cellular automata-based artificial immune system (CaAIS), specifically designed for dynamic optimization problems where the environment changes over time. In the proposed model, antibodies, representing nominal solutions, are distributed across a cellular grid that corresponds to the search space. These antibodies generate hyper-mutation clones at different times by interacting with neighboring cells in parallel, thereby producing different solutions. Through local interactions between neighboring cells, near-best parameters and near-optimal solutions are propagated throughout the search space. Iteratively, in each cell and in parallel, the most effective antibodies are retained as memory. In contrast, weak antibodies are removed and replaced with new antibodies until stopping criteria are met. The CaAIS combines cellular automata computational power with AIS optimization capability. To evaluate the CaAIS performance, several experiments have been conducted on the Moving Peaks Benchmark. These experiments consider different configurations such as neighborhood size and re-randomization of antibodies. The simulation results statistically demonstrate the superiority of the CaAIS over other artificial immune system algorithms in most cases, particularly in dynamic environments.

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